Sorgiss duvèrta

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As ciama Sorgiss duvèrta (an anglèis open source) n'ansema ëd prinsipi e pràtica ch'a l'han ël but dë possé për l'acessibilità dij process ëd progetassion e produssion dla conossensa e dij prodot. L'espression a l'é naita e a l'é anco' dzortut spantià ant l'anvironament dël còdes sorgiss dij programa che a resto a disposission dël pùblich con pòch ò gnente drit d'aotor ansima. Sòn a lassa che j'utent as ëscrivo sò programa ën travajand daspërlor ò an colaborassion.

Ël model operativ dla Sorgiss Duvèrta a peul ëslarghesse al process decisional ant la cultura a sorgiss duvèrta, lòn ch'a lassa convive but, manere dë fé e priorità diferente, an contrast con dij modej ëd dësvlup pì centralisà, coma coj che për sòlit as dòvro ant j'asiende comersiaj.[1] La cultura a sorgiss duvèrta a l'é cola andova decision coletive e/ò fissagi a resto an condivision ant ël process ëd dësvlup e son butà acessibij ant ël domini pùblich, coma as fa an Wikipedia. Sta manera dë fé an coletiv a-j fa da amortisator a ij sagrin étichl rësgoard a "conflit ëd fonsion" ò conflit d'anteresse. Chi ch'a fa part ëd na cultura parej a peul modifiché l'arzultà dël travaj coletiv e condivid-je con la comun-a. A-i é chi ch'a considera la sorgiss duvèrta mach coma un-a dle manere dë fé possibij, e a-i é ëdcò chi ch'a në fa n'element crìtich dla strategìa ëd soe operassion.

Anans che l'espression sorgiss duvèrta a vnisèissa ëd meuda, programista e prodotor a dovravo vàire espression për descrive ël midem concet; sta dission-sì a l'ha pijait lë dzora ansima a j'àotri con la chërsùa dla Ragnà, che a l'ha lassà buté ansema vàire modej ëd produssion, përcors ëd comunicassion e comun-e anterative.[2] Pì tard, ij programa a sorgiss duvèrta a son ëvnuit a esse l'aspet pì avosà dla pràtica an sorgiss duvèrta.

Stòria[modìfica | modifiché la sorgiss]

Ant j'agn anviron al 1950, la IBM a l'a distribuì ëd sistema operativ an forma ëd sorgiss, e a l'é formasse comun-a d'utent SHARE përchè a restèissa belfé scambiesse le sorgiss. Ant j'agn 1960, j'arsërcador ch'a l'avìo acess a Advanced Research Projects Agency Network (ARPANET) a dovravo un process ciamà Arcesta ëd Coment, ch'a-j ësmija a jë stàndard duvèrt, për dësvlupé na rej ëd protocòj ëd telecomunicassion. Ës process colaborativ-sì a l'ha mna a fé nasse la Ragnà dël 1969.

Ant j'agn 1990, na vira che Microsoft a l'era butasse a distribuì Internet Explorer coma "Programa a Gràtis", Netscape a l'ha pensà bin dë fé un pass anans, e a l'ha butasse a distribuì a gràtis soa sorgiss, ën passand a "Sorgiss Duvèrta". Ël tilèt "sorgiss duvèrta" a l'é nait ant na riunion stratégica[3] a Palo Alto, an Califòrnia, coma reassion a la comunicassion ufissiala ëd Nescape dël Gené 1998 rësgoard a na distribussion dël còdes sorgiss për sò Navigator Netscape. Antra j'andustriaj present a la riunion a-i ero Madamin Christine Peterson ch'a l'ha fortì ël dovré dl'espression "sorgiss doèrta", M.sù Todd Anderson, M.sù Larry Augustin, M.sù Jon Hall, M.sù Sam Ockman, e M.sù Eric S. Raymond. Parej, prima ch'as anandièissa la distribussion dël codes sorgiss dël Navigator, a son gavasse via ël sagrin dle conotassion ideològiche e agressive (ant un sens comersial) dl'espression Programa a Gràtis. Netscape a l'ha licensià e distribuì soa sorgiss coma sorgiss duvèrta col nòm ëd Mozilla.

St'espression-sì a l'ha daje un gran posson a n'event organisà dl'Avril 1998 da l'editor tecnològich Tim O'Reilly. Daspërchiel, l'event a sarìa stait ciamà "Ancontr dla Ròba gràtis" ma a l'é peui ëvnuit avosà coma "Ancontr dla Sorgiss Duvèrta",[4]. St'event-sì a l'ha fait ancontré le figure prinsipaj ëd vàire dij pì amportant proget classificà coma "a gràtis" e a "sorgiss duvèrta", comprèis M.sù Linus Torvalds, M.sù Larry Wall, M.sù Brian Behlendorf, M.sù Eric Allman, M.sù Guido van Rossum, M.sù Michael Tiemann, M.sù Paul Vixie, M.sù Jamie Zawinski ëd Netscape, e M.sù Eric Raymond. Ant ël cors dla riunion a l'é staita arlevà la confusion tirà sù da la denominassion "Programa a Gràtis". Monsù Tiemann a l'ha fortì ël dovré ëd "ròba a sorgiss" coma neuva dission, antramentr che M.sù Raymond a fortìa ël dovré ëd "sorgiss duvèrta". Ij dësvlupator present a la riunion a l'han votà, e l'arzultà a l'é stait anunsià an conferensa stampa dla midema sèira. Sta pera miliar-sì a l'é për sòlit considerà ël moment ch'a l'é na-ie ëlmoviment dla sorgiss duvèrta.

L'Inissiativa dla Sorgiss Duvèrta (OSI) a l'é formasse dël Fërvé 1998, mersì a M.sù Raymond e M.sù Perens. Ën avend la Ragnà ch'a smonìa na pràtica dë squasi 20 agn ëd cas dë studi basà ansima a proget a sorgiss doèrta (tant gia sarà che anco' doèrt), la OSI a l'ha continuà a fortì la càusa dla 'sorgiss duvèrta' ant l'anvironament comersial. Sò but a l'é stait col dë trové un profil pì àot për smon-e lòn che 'd bon a peul dé un còdes sorgiss duvèrt al pùblich, e a l'han dasse da fé për ëmné le pì gran asiende comersiaj ch'a fasìo programa (e àotre industrie a àota teconologìa) ant l'anvironament dla sorgiss duvèrta. M.sù Perens a l'ha adatà le linie guida dël proget Debian për ponté la Definission ëd Sorgiss Duvèrta.[5]

Chi ch'a l'ha criticà a l'ha dit che l'espression "sorgiss duvèrta" a fortiss n'ambiguità antra la pura e sempia disponibilità dël còdes sorgiss e la libertà dë dovrelo, modifichelo e torna distribuilo. Coma conseguensa, ij dësvlupator a l'han peui pijait l'andi a dovré la dission Programa Gràtis/Lìber/A sorgiss duvèrta (FLOSS), për dì d'un programa che ant sël pat d'esse a sorgiss duvèrta a resta 'cò disponibil a chi ch'a veul pijelo sensa ch'ai sia da paghé.

Società e cultura[modìfica | modifiché la sorgiss]

La Cultura a Sorgiss Duvèrta a l'é la pràtica creativa dë pijé possess e buté an condivision a gràtis dël contnù ch'a l'é fasse ò trovasse. Antra j'esempi as peulo butesse ij colagi, part ëd film trovà, mùsica, e art dl'apropriassion. La cultira a sorgiss duvèrta a l'é cola andova le fissassion a son faite an manera dë resté disponibil al pùblich. Chi ch'a fa part dë sta cultura a peul modifiché sti prodot e torna distribuije ant la comun-a ò ant dj'àotre organisassion. A la rèis dël moviment dla sorgiss duvèrta a-i son le costuma african-e e dël Jazzscambiesse la batùa, e ij moviment dla Dansa Lìbera ch'a son nait dj'ùltim dël sécol ch'a fa XX. Antra jë strategìe për la sorgiss duvèrta dla fin dël sécol a-i son Fluxus, amprovisassion ant sla Ragnà, Wigglism e la cultura antërnassional ch'as ciama Hip Hop.

Ël chërse dla cultura a sorgiss duvèrta dël sécol ch'a fa XX a l'é l'arzultà ëd na tension viaman pì fòrta antra na pràtica creativa ch'a l'ha da manca d'apropriesse ëd contnù, e donca motobin soèns a l'ha da manca d'acess a contnù sota a drit d'aotor, e na legislassion maraman pì strèita rësgoard a la proprietà anteletual e a le polìtiche ch'a goèrno l'acess al material sot a drit d'aotor. Le doe diression prinsipaj ëd restrission për la legislassion ant sla proprietà antelettual a son ëstaite:

Për tant che da na mira artìstica l'apropriassion ëd contnù a sia soèns consentìa sota a la dotrin-a dël dovré giust, la question a resta: sta dotrin-a a l'é motobin antortojà e soèns un a la les com a veul chiel, lòn ch'e men-a an'atmosfera motobin ancerta antra j'operator colturaj. A-i é ëdcò la question che l'assion protetiva dij possessor dij drit d'aotor a da lòn che cheidun a ciama "efet giassa" antra j'operator colturaj.

Ant j'ùltim agn dël sécol ch'a fa XX, j'operator colturaj a l'han anandiasse a adoté le técniche ëd licensa dla proprietà anteletoal coma programa lìber e a gràtis e programa a sorgiss duvèrta, për fé am manera che sò travaj a restèissa lìber da dovré për j'àotri. Sòn a comprend ëdcò le license dla sòrt Creative Commons.

L'idèja ëd na coltura a "sorgiss duvèrta" (CSD) a cor paralela al "Moviment dla Coltura Lìbera", ma a l'é motobin diferenta. Coltura lìbera a l'é n'espression derivà dal moviment dij programa lìber e a gràtis, an contrast con cola manera-lì dë s-ciairé la coltura, coj ch'a fortisso la CSD a son convint che un chèich drit legal ëd proprietà anteletoal a debia ess-ie, për fé la tua dij produtor ëd coltura. Però a smon-o na posission pì sfumà, che nen cola che le gran corporassion për sò sòlit a l'han sërcà. Al pòst dë ciamé na tua legal coma utiss ëd protession ëd drit naturaj ò ëd profit, la CSD a ten cont che a-i son vàire sòrt ëd prodot e vàire manere ëd dovreje.

Un-a dle manere për rivé a buté la rapresentassion ëd n'euvra a disposission dël pùblich a l'é cola dë dovré tecnologìa e mojen digitaj. Conforma a la prevision dla Lej ëd Moore, ël cost dij mojen digitaj e dla spassi dë stocagi a l'é drocà a la fin dël sécol ch'a fa XX, e ël cost marginal dla duplicassion digital ëd qualsëssìa ròba ch'as peula trasmëtte con sti mojen-sì a l'é rivà motobin davsin a lë zero. Ën combinand sossì con la chërsùa esplosiva dij calcolator personaj e la proprietà spantià dla tecnologìa a l'é avusse un gran increment d'acess dël pùblich general a ij mojen digitaj. Sòn a l'ha fait resté belfé che la CSD a la chërsèissa, ën lassand che le duplicassion dël contnù e soa distribussion a rivèisso ampressa. L'acess a la pì gran part dla coltura faita anans ch'a-i rivèisso ij mojen digitaj a l'era limità da dj'àotri fator, nopà che ant l'época digital ël potensial ëd chërsùa dij contnù a l'é fasse squasi anfinì. J'artista e j'utent ch'a sërno dë distribuì soe euvre an forma digital a l'han gnun-a dle limitassion fìsiche dont a l'avìo da sagrinesse ij produtor tradissionaj ëd coltura. Për consegoensa, ël pùblich ëd na coltura a sorgiss duvèrta as treuva a spende motobin pòch për acede a ij contnù.

La CSD a l'é naita coma idèja sensa pa 'd nòm vàire agn anans ch'a-i partèissa la Ragnà. M.sù Richard Stallman a l'ha codificà ël concet con la creassion dla Free Software Foundation (Fondassion për ij programa Lìber e a Gràtis). Comsëssìa, bele che anans ch'a-i rivèisso M.sù Stallman e la Ragnà, la gent a l'avìa pijait l'andi a comuniché con ij sistema ciamà Bulletin Board Systems (BBS) coma FidoNet. An América, pòst coma la Sourcery Systems BBS a restavo gia dedicà a buté le sorgiss dij programa ant ël Domini Pùblich, a fé ëd Programa condivis (Shareware) e ëd Programa a gràtis (Freeware).

Essentially born out of a desire for increased general access to digital media, the Internet is open source culture's most valuable asset. It is questionable whether the goals of an open source culture could be achieved without the Internet. The global network not only fosters an environment where culture can be generally accessible, but also allows for easy and inexpensive redistribution of culture back into various communities. Some reasons for this are as follows.

First, the Internet allows even greater access to inexpensive digital media and storage. Instead of users being limited to their own facilities and resources, they are granted access to a vast network of facilities and resources, some for free. Sites such as Archive.org offer up free web space for anyone willing to license their work under the Creative Commons license. The resulting cultural product is then available to download for free (generally accessible) to anyone with an Internet connection.

Second, users are granted unprecedented access to each other. Older analog technologies such as the telephone or television have limitations on the kind of interaction users can have. In the case of television there is little, if any interaction between users participating on the network. And in the case of the telephone, users rarely interact with any more than a couple of their known peers. On the Internet, however, users have the potential to access and meet millions of their peers. This aspect of the Internet facilitates the modification of culture as users are able to collaborate and communicate with each other across international and cultural boundaries. The speed in which digital media travels on the Internet in turn facilitates the redistribution of culture.

Through various technologies such as peer-to-peer networks and blogs, cultural producers can take advantage of vast social networks in order to distribute their products. As opposed to traditional media distribution, redistributing digital media on the Internet can be virtually costless. Technologies such as BitTorrent and Gnutella take advantage of various characteristics of the Internet protocol (TCP/IP) in an attempt to totally decentralize file distribution.

Government[modìfica | modifiché la sorgiss]

  • Open source governmentprimarily refers to use of open source software technologies in traditional government organizations and government operations such as voting.
  • Open politics (sometimes known as Open source politics) — is a term used to describe a political process that uses Internet technologies such as blogs, email and polling to provide for a rapid feedback mechanism between political organizations and their supporters. There is also an alternative conception of the term Open source politics which relates to the development of public policy under a set of rules and processes similar to the Open Source Software movement.
  • Open source governance — is similar to open source politics, but it applies more to the democratic process and promotes the freedom of information.

Ethics[modìfica | modifiché la sorgiss]

Open Source ethics is split into two strands:

  • Open Source Ethics as an Ethical School - Charles Ess and David Berry are researching whether ethics can learn anything from an open source approach. Ess famously even defined the AoIR Research Guidelines as an example of open source ethics.[6]
  • Open Source Ethics as a Professional Body of Rules - This is based principally on the computer ethics school, studying the questions of ethics and professionalism in the computer industry in general and software development in particular.[7]

Media[modìfica | modifiché la sorgiss]

Open source journalism — referred to the standard journalistic techniques of news gathering and fact checking, and reflected a similar term that was in use from 1992 in military intelligence circles, open source intelligence. It is now commonly used to describe forms of innovative publishing of online journalism, rather than the sourcing of news stories by a professional journalist. In the Dec 25, 2006 issue of TIME magazine this is referred to as user created content and listed alongside more traditional open source projects such as OpenSolaris and Linux.

Weblogs, or blogs, are another significant platform for open source culture. Blogs consist of periodic, reverse chronologically ordered posts, using a technology that makes webpages easily updatable with no understanding of design, code, or file transfer required. While corporations, political campaigns and other formal institutions have begun using these tools to distribute information, many blogs are used by individuals for personal expression, political organizing, and socializing. Some, such as LiveJournal or WordPress, utilize open source software that is open to the public and can be modified by users to fit their own tastes. Whether the code is open or not, this format represents a nimble tool for people to borrow and re-present culture; whereas traditional websites made the illegal reproduction of culture difficult to regulate, the mutability of blogs makes "open sourcing" even more uncontrollable since it allows a larger portion of the population to replicate material more quickly in the public sphere.

Messageboards are another platform for open source culture. Messageboards (also known as discussion boards or forums), are places online where people with similar interests can congregate and post messages for the community to read and respond to. Messageboards sometimes have moderators who enforce community standards of etiquette such as banning users who are spammers. Other common board features are private messages (where users can send messages to one another) as well as chat (a way to have a real time conversation online) and image uploading. Some messageboards use phpBB, which is a free open source package. Where blogs are more about individual expression and tend to revolve around their authors, messageboards are about creating a conversation amongst its users where information can be shared freely and quickly. Messageboards are a way to remove intermediaries from everyday life - for instance, instead of relying on commercials and other forms of advertising, one can ask other users for frank reviews of a product, movie or CD. By removing the cultural middlemen, messageboards help speed the flow of information and exchange of ideas.

OpenDocument is an open document file format for saving and exchanging editable office documents such as text documents (including memos, reports, and books), spreadsheets, charts, and presentations. Organizations and individuals that store their data in an open format such as OpenDocument avoid being locked in to a single software vendor, leaving them free to switch software if their current vendor goes out of business, raises their prices, changes their software, or changes their licensing terms to something less favorable.

Open source movie production is either an open call system in which a changing crew and cast collaborate in movie production, a system in which the end result is made available for re-use by others or in which exclusively open source products are used in the production. The 2006 movie Elephants Dream is said to be the "world's first open movie"[8], created entirely using open source technology.

Open Source Technology Good Stoves - a movement that each individual or organization /s develop technology for common good with out expecting profit (or patenting). It is an idea to design efficient stoves for the millions using traditional or less efficient biomass stoves, so that these clean stoves if adopted would help in mitigating the Climate change / global warming too. www.goodstove.com

An open source documentary film has a production process allowing the open contributions of archival material, footage, and other filmic elements, both in unedited and edited form. By doing so, on-line contributors become part of the process of creating the film, helping to influence the editorial and visual material to be used in the documentary, as well as its thematic development. The first open source documentary film to go into production "The American Revolution" [9]," which will examine the role that WBCN-FM in Boston played in the cultural, social and political changes locally and nationally from 1968 to 1974, is being produced by Lichtenstein Creative Media and the non-profit The Fund for Independent Media. Open Source Cinema is a website to create Basement Tapes, a feature documentary about copyright in the digital age, co-produced by the National Film Board of Canada. Open Source Filmmaking refers to a form of filmmaking that takes a method of idea formation from open source software, but in this case the 'source' for a film maker is raw unedited footage rather than programming code. It can also refer to a method of filmmaking where the process of creation is 'open' i.e. a disparate group of contributors, at different times contribute to the final piece.

Open-IPTV is IPTV that is not limited to one recording studio, production studio, or cast. Open-IPTV uses the Internet or other means to pool efforts and resources together to create an online community that all contributes to a show.

Education[modìfica | modifiché la sorgiss]

Within the academic community, there is discussion about expanding what could be called the "intellectual commons" (analogous to the creative commons). Proponents of this view have hailed the Connexions Project at Rice University, OpenCourseWare project at MIT, Eugene Thacker's article on "Open Source DNA", the "Open Source Cultural Database", openwebschool, and Wikipedia as examples of applying open source outside the realm of computer software.

Open source curricula are instructional resources whose digital source can be freely used, distributed and modified.

Another strand to the academic community is in the area of research. Many funded research projects produce software as part of their work. There is an increasing interest in making the outputs of such projects available under an open source license. In the UK the Joint Information Systems Committee (JISC) has developed a policy on open source software. JISC also funds a development service called OSS Watch which acts as an advisory service for higher and further education institutions wishing to use, contribute to and develop open source software.

Innovation communities[modìfica | modifiché la sorgiss]

The principle of sharing predates the open source movement; for example, the free sharing of information has been institutionalized in the scientific enterprise since at least the 19th century. Open source principles have always been part of the scientific community. The sociologist Robert K. Merton described the four basic elements of the community - universalism (an international perspective), communism (sharing information), disinterestedness (removing one's personal views from the scientific inquiry) and organized skepticism (requirements of proof and review) that accurately describe the scientific community today. These principles are, in part, complemented by US law's focus on protecting expression and method but not the ideas themselves. There is also a tradition of publishing research results to the scientific community instead of keeping all such knowledge proprietary. One of the recent initiatives in scientific publishing has been open access - the idea that research should be published in such a way that it is free and available to the public. There are currently many open access journals where the information is available for free online, however most journals do charge a fee (either to users or libraries for access). The Budapest Open Access Initiative is an international effort with the goal of making all research articles available for free on the Internet. The National Institutes of Health has recently proposed a policy on "Enhanced Public Access to NIH Research Information." This policy would provide a free, searchable resource of NIH-funded results to the public and with other international repositories six months after its initial publication. The NIH's move is an important one because there is significant amount of public funding in scientific research. Many of the questions have yet to be answered - the balancing of profit vs. public access, and ensuring that desirable standards and incentives do not diminish with a shift to open access.

Benjamin Franklin was an early contributor eventually donating all his inventions including the Franklin stove, bifocals and the lightning rod to the public domain after successfully profiting off their sales and patents.

New NGO communities are starting to use the open source technology as a tool. One example is the Open Source Youth Network started in 2007 in Lisboa by ISCA members[10].

Arts and recreation[modìfica | modifiché la sorgiss]

Copyright protection is used in the performing arts and even in athletic activities. Groups have attempted to protect such practices from being fettered by copyright.[11]

Criticism[modìfica | modifiché la sorgiss]

Critics of "open source" publishing cite the need for direct compensation for the work of creation. For example, the act of writing a book, building a complex piece of software, or producing a motion picture requires a substantial amount of labor. Retaining intellectual property rights over such works greatly increases the feasibility of obtaining financial compensation which covers the labor costs. Proponents argue that without this compensation, many socially desirable and useful works would never be created in the first place. Some critics draw distinctions between areas where open source collaborations have successfully created useful products, such as general-purpose software, and areas where they see compensation as more important and collaboration as less important, such as highly specialized complex software projects, entertainment, or news.

Another criticism of the open source movement is that these projects are not really as self-organizing as their proponents claim. This argument holds that open source projects succeed only when they have a strong central manager, even if that manager is a volunteer. The article Open Source Projects Manage Themselves? Dream On. by Chuck Connell explains this viewpoint. Eric Raymond responded to this criticism, and Chuck Connell answered.

The Free Software Foundation (FSF) opposes the term "open source" being applied to what they refer to as "free software". They also oppose the professed pragmatism of the open source movement, as they fear that the free software ideals of freedom and community are threatened by compromising on the FSF's idealistic standards for software freedom. "For the Open Source movement, non-free software is a suboptimal solution. For the Free Software movement, non-free software is a social problem and free software is the solution." [12]

Business models[modìfica | modifiché la sorgiss]

There are a number of commonly recognized barriers to the adoption of open source software by enterprises. These barriers include licenses that are viral, lack of formal support and training, the velocity of change, and a lack of a long term roadmap. The majority of these barriers are risk-related. Many business models exist around open source software to provide a 'whole product' to help reduce these risks. The 'whole product' typically includes support, professional services, training, certification, partner programs, references and use cases. These business models range from 'services only' organisations that do not participate in the development of the software to models where the majority of the software is created by full-time committers that are employed by a central organization. These business models have come into existance recently and their operation is not commonly understood. One model that has been developed to explain this is the Bee Keeper Model

See also[modìfica | modifiché la sorgiss]

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Notes and references[modìfica | modifiché la sorgiss]

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External links[modìfica | modifiché la sorgiss]

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  1. Raymond, Eric S. The Cathedral and the Bazaar. ed 3.0. 2000.
  2. The complexity of such communication relates to Brooks' law, and is described by Eric S. Raymond, "Brooks predicts that as your number of programmers N rises, work performed scales as N but complexity and vulnerability to bugs rises as N-squared. N-squared tracks the number of communications paths (and potential code interfaces) between developers' code bases." —"The Revenge of the Hackers". 2000.
  3. History of the OSI. Open Source Initiative. 2006.
  4. Open Source Summit Linux Gazette. 1998.
  5. Perens, Bruce. Open Sources: Voices from the Open Source Revolution. O'Reilly Media. 1999.
  6. Berry (2004) Internet Ethics: Privacy, Ethics and Alienation - An Open Source Approach. (PDF file)
  7. El-Emam, K (2001). Ethics and Open Source. Empirical Software Engineering 6(4).
  8. http://www.elephantsdream.org/
  9. "The American Revolution
  10. http://www.isca-web.org/english/youth/yource/thenetwork
  11. http://www.yogaunity.org
  12. Free Software Foundation: Why “Free Software” is better than “Open Source”